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Read The History of the Cocktail Here

There is an aura of mystery that surrounds the birth of the Martini. I suppose that is fitting for a drink that has become associated with the likes of James Bond, spy extraordinaire, as well as other notables such as Frank Sinatra, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Alfred Hitchcock, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill.

Some say the martini originated in a saloon in the late 1800's in Martinez, California. There is a "Martinez" recipe in a bartending book from 1887 (The Bon Vivant's Companion by Jerry Thomas - but with a Maraschino cherry instead of an olive and a dash of orange bitters instead of a lemon twist. Some claim the name "martini" came from the Martini and Henry rifle used by the British army in the late 1800s - supposedly because both had "a strong kick". The first official mention of the word Martini appears in the New and Improved Illustrated Bartending Manual in 1888.

The martini was considered THE cocktail in the days of Prohibition - probably because of the "bathtub gin" of the era. It gained great popularity and élan during the days of the "Rat Pack" and fell into oblivion during the health conscious days of the 70s and 80s. The resurgence of the martini in today's chi chi bistros is due in part to the return of glamor and sophistication and the development of "designer" martinis that have little in common with the original drink.
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Probably the first true "martini" was concocted around 1911 at the Knickerbocker Hotel of New York by Martini de Arma di Taggia, who was head bartender at the time. He combined 1 part London Gin, 1 part Noilly Prat Vermouth and orange bitters, chilled over ice and then strained into a chilled glass. No one is really sure who added the olive - I like to think it was a hungry customer who decided to grab an olive or two and tossed one in the mouth and one in the drink for later!

Often referred to as the "Silver Bullet" (because of this quote by William Emerson, Jr.: "and when that first martini hits the liver like a silver bullet, there is a sigh of contentment that can be heard in Dubuque"), the current recipe for a classic martini is five parts gin to one part vermouth. A Dry Martini reduces the vermouth, depending on the taste preferences, from just a splash to simply coating the inside of the glass. It is said the Winston Churchill's idea of a dry martini was to look at the bottle of vermouth from across the room! The classic martini is most often served with an olive as garnish, but a softer version is served with a twist of lemon rind.

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A variation of the classic martini is the Gibson - where the olive is replaced by a pickled onion. Some great stories can be found surrounding the Gibson - often said to be named after Charles Dana Gibson (illustrator of the famed Gibson Girl paintings) as a result of a challenge to a bartender at the Players Club in New York. Another version attributes the Gibson to a Prohibition era diplomat who, as a teetotaller, drank a water martini with the onion to distinguish it from the alcohol laced drinks of his companions.

Current tastes prefer vodka instead of gin, though purists claim this is not a classic martini but a Vodkatini or a Kangaroo. In most upscale cocktail lounges these days you will find what I call "designer martinis" in a variety of recipes from the ground breaking Appletini to the downright decadence of dessert martinis like my Chocolate Cherry Cordial Martini or my Key Lime Pie Martini. For the glamorati of today if you serve it in a martini glass it's a martini! Fine by me, because it was the elegant and sophisticated martini glass that really began my own martini obsession!

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"Shaken, Not Stirred", the movie version of 007's supposedly favorite way to have his martini mixed, would not give you a classic "Martini" but a "Bradford" where a cocktail of gin and vermouth is shaken then poured into a martini glass not strained so that small shards of ice float in it.

Though this oft repeated pop culture phrase has been the culprit of many a badly abused classic martini, it is not through any fault of the impeccable Mr. Bond, James Bond. In the books our favorite spy is actually ordering a "Vesper" (named after a Bond Girl) and not a martini.

Shaking the martini as opposed to stirring is said to "bruise" the gin, thereby sharpening it's taste, though many argue this dulls the taste of the vermouth - possibly another way to create a "dry" martini! Either way, a Gin Martini is best stirred, not shaken and a Vodka Martini is shaken, not stirred!

For you health nuts, here's an interesting fact: A shaken martini is more healthy for you! Evidently, shaking the martini produces significantly higher antioxidant properties than a stirred one!

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True martini aficionados will start with the gin, the glass and the vermouth ALL at room temperature! This is so that when they are mixed with the ice a small amount of water mixes with the drink compound. The infusion of the water is said to bring out the floral notes of juniper, which is gin's primary flavoring element. In addition, this method brightens the flavors of the cocktail, opens the nose to allow the more delicate notes to dance on the palate. Using cold ingredients creates a less interesting drink with an oily texture.

Vodka martinis are best mixed and served cold - like revenge.

History of the Martini Glass Design
A study in form over function?

Martini glasses are a subset of cocktail glasses designed for specific purposes.  Though the martini glass design may look arbitrary and somewhat of a balance challenge, there is a true function to this elegant and unique cocktail glass.

In a martini glass the long stem is a design element that will keep the martini cold without the addition of ice which would water down the drink. It also allows for holding the cocktail without allowing the heat of the hand to warm the drink.

There is a tale that the wide mouth was designed to allow for quicker dumping of the “illegal” alcohol in the event of a raid on the speakeasy during the Prohibition era, though it’s more likely that the wide brim was a design element that allows for surface tension which enhances the natural bouquet of the juniper berries in the gin.

A traditional martini glass was originally designed to hold a four ounce cocktail.  When martini glasses were invented a martini was nearly all gin, then vodka, with just a splash or so of vermouth and maybe some orange bitters.  These days the designer martinis require larger capacity because of the addition of juices and mixers.  It’s not uncommon to see martini glasses that will serve a six or even eight ounce cocktail!

Martini glasses now come in all sizes and shapes and decorations.  There are hand blown glasses with imaginative stems, etched crystal glasses and fun, colorful hand painted glasses available today.  There are “inverted” glasses and even martini bowls without the stems that come nestled in a larger fishbowl shape you can fill with ice.  I even have a giant martini glass that I use for chips, flowers and even party favors on my buffet table – but the one common design element is that distinctive conical bowl with the wide mouth.  Without that inverted cone it’s just not a martini glass.

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History of the Martini and Martini Glass.